The product

The Battery Briner is designed to be use easy and efficiently to stop thermal runway in Electric Vehicle Batteries.

Patent pending EP21201842.8

System illustrated

Challenges of thermal runaway and fires in batteries

An EV battery catching fire, due to manufacturing errors, have been damaged, or any other causes, looks like a spontaneous combustion, e.g., like in fuel consumption vehicles. However, the internal burning process within the battery is called a “thermal runaway” and is different from a normal burning process.

Unlike a fire in a fuel consuming vehicle where just one single reaction occurs, a fire in an EV battery comprises multiple steps. Essentially, an uncontrolled, cascading loop of violent chemical reactions releases a tremendous amount of energy and heat, and as the individual battery cells warm up, energy and heat drives through the rest of the battery in a kind of domino effect.
What makes this worse is the fact that, as the thermal runaway accelerates, the burning battery’s stored energy essentially creates its own fuel (oxides). It’s a chemical fire which doesn’t necessarily need oxygen, hereby making it far harder to extinguish than a petrol fire. With the oxides present in the battery cells, temperatures from approx. 180°C causes oxygen to be released in the battery, which reacts with cell components, in particular the electrolyte, which again leads to an exothermic reaction that cannot be stopped in practice, during which the battery burns.

The fires emit combustible and harmful gases such as hydrogen fluoride, and due to its internal thermal runaway, the fire will not burn out. A burning battery or an overheated battery in a parking environment, such as ferries, parking garages, underground parking, parking lots, tunnels etc. which might catch fire, provides a severe risk of human injury, and especially if the parking environment is a ferry, it provides a risk of the entire ship catching fire and thus resulting in a disaster.

Visible flames during test, underneath car
Visible flames during test, sprinkler system started
Firemen at the scene, extinguishing equipment inserted through the rear window
End of the test, sprinkling from the lateral side initiated
Cabin after fire has been extinguishing.
Cabin almost intact after fire has been extinguishing.
This section illustrates the measurements performed with the spot thermocouples. The “zero”-time, or the test starting point is considered the moment of initiation the electrical short. The stop time of the measurements is set to approximately 100 minutes after this moment.
Suggestion to solution in closed environment
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Brine is a natural product; it is a high- concentration solution of salt (NaCl) in water (H2O)

Brine is used as a secondary fluid in large refrigeration installations for the transport of thermal energy.
The lowest freezing point obtainable for NaCl brine is −21.1°C (−6.0°F) at the concentration of 23.3% NaCl by weight. This is called the eutectic point.

Brine needs an insulated tank that can circulate the fluid, to keep the right temperature. The durability is not an issue.

Advantages of Brine fluid Submersion

The examined method of cooling batteries in thermal runaway via Brine fluid submersion seem to show a very sharp cooldown curve for the tested battery pack samples. Any ongoing thermal runaway should be halted and spread of the runaway effect to adjacent batteries avoided.

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The Battery Briner

The closed circuit comprises a compressor 30 which compresses the ammonia which hereby increases the temperature of the ammonia.

The heated vapor ammonia enters a cold condenser 32 which absorbs the heat from the ammonia which is converted into liquid. The condenser 32 is preferably connected to a cooling tower (not shown) which water cools the condenser.

The liquid ammonia enters a receiver where it accumulates, in order to deliver a continues amount of ammonia to the following components. After the receiver, the high-pressure liquid ammonia enters an expansion valve 36 where it expands, and the pressure decreases whereby the temperature falls and the ammonia is a very cold liquid.

The liquid and very cold ammonia then enters the evaporator 38 where the refrigerant effect occurs. The evaporator 38 is connected to the tank 12 by conduits, such that the brine 22, which is stored inside the tank 12 can be pumped, by a pump 40, through the evaporator 38 where the brine is cooled down to the desired temperature. Preferably, the pump 40 continuously pumps the brine through the evaporator 38 to keep a constant cold temperature of the brine inside the tank 12.

From the tank 12, the brine 22 is delivered to the car (not shown) through the delivery system, which in the shown embodiment is illustrated by the second flexible delivery system 18. The delivery system may consist only of the second flexible delivery system 18.

A Flexible system

The diagram shows a cooling system for cooling the brine. The illustrated cooling system is one possible embodiment but it should be understood that the cooling system may be arranged differently.

The system comprises a closed circuit having a refrigerant such as NH3 (ammonia). The system is not limited to ammonia, it may use any freezing method like e.g. CO2.

Alternatively, the second flexible part may be coupled directly to the storage medium for delivering to the fire extinguishing medium without using the first stationary part. It is hereby achieved that the system can deliver fire extinguishing medium outside the area of the first stationary part.

The idea includes the option, that the tank can be disconnected from the cooling unit. This option makes it possible for the fire departments to be better equipped, in case of a “fire” in electrical cars.

Other products

The Portable Briner

With more than 160 million laptop PC´s sold in 2017, and the numbers growing. It seems likely that at least some hundred critical failures can be expected every year.

The Portable Briner is designed to be both sleek and robust. It will fit most electronic devices such as laptops, tablets, and phones. Moreover, it is constructed from durable materials that can withstand heat and flames.The portable briner is an indispensable tool to combat lithium battery overheating or fire in constrained spaces, such as airplanes and trains.

Its small size and compact design make it easy to install even in the most cramped spaces.

Patent pending PCT/IB2022/060873

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